The question of Satan's power over the weather must first of all treat of Satan 's power in general. St. Thomas Aquinas, especially in his Summa Theologica, gives us more information into the essential nature and powers of angels, it seems, then all other sources combined. Satan we know is a fallen angel and so is an angel in his nature.
St. Thomas says that angels, are pure spirits who in their nature are greatly above the species of man. Angels can move matter and to a degree have power over all of nature in the sense of direct and immediate use and manipulation of the laws of nature. They cannot change the laws of nature or work miracles or produce effects outside of all created nature. Only God can do this and so only God can work miracles.
Black-magic magicians (as opposed to those who do simple/complex tricks) produce magical tricks or acts via the help of the demons. The magician who in his act has the piano rise from the floor, without wires, has the help of a demon. Pharaoh's magicians worked signs similar in appearance to Moses' miracles, but they were not actual miracles, but a direct and immediate use of the laws of nature. And so St. Thomas and St. Augustine tell us that these magicians of Pharaoh, produced real frogs and real serpents or snakes.
The book of Job gives us actual true stories of Satan using his power over the weather. And so St. Thomas and St. Augustine tell us that Satan produced real lightning and produced a real storm (not phantoms), so to kill Job's sons and sheep etc.
And so we can proceed to say:
1. It is absolutely certain that Satan has some power over the weather.
2. His freedom to use this power depends on God's permission.
3. It is a spiritual law that 'where sin increases, there Satan's power increases' - his effective power or freedom to use his power. The positive side of this equation is that 'where grace increases, there Satan is cast out or his power taken away'. Also you might read the paper SATAN UNCHAINED, for more on Satan's power vs the power of grace.
4. In our times, there exists great evils and immorality, far above the not so distant past, which by the above mentioned spiritual law, gives Satan increased power, which he did not have in the not so distant past. And logically then Satan has increased power over the weather in our times. Hence it is quite reasonable to conclude that some at least of this recent severe weather and upheavals of nature: such as earthquakes, major storms, floods etc are directly due to Satan's work.
From the side of God and His justice, we must say that these upheavals and severe weather is God's anger and punishment for evil and sin unleashed through natural and spiritual laws which He has established, so to help move mankind to repentance and good. God has created a world wherein freewill exists - as opposed to a world of robots - and so good and evil both exist. However, God with the greatest intensity wills all to be saved, wills all to come to perfection, wills only goodness and hates all evil.
NOTE: Obviously Satan can do nothing without God's permission. By saying Satan has power over the weather does not mean that God is not in charge. God is fully and completely in charge and uses secondary powers to bring beings of freewill to goodness, to merit, to show their stuff, to prove themselves as real men etc.
As first cause God does everything. He holds in existence everything that exists. There is no other way - else it falls back into nothingness. As first cause God must move Satan to act, as he must move my fingers, else they do not move. There is no other way. All good gifts come from God, for everything that exists comes from God as first cause, there is no other way. As St. Paul says : "What have you which you have not received." Hence why boast as if to take first credit. Give credit to Him who deserves the credit. Not that secondary causes do not deserve credit - but simply that they deserve second credit. There is no other way.
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